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A Guide to Polish Courts

A Guide to Polish Courts

The Constitution of Poland defines the Polish judiciary system as being a four-tier court, composed out of the Supreme Court of Poland, the common courts, administrative courts, that also include the Supreme Administrative Court of Poland, as well as military courts. However, tribunals like Constitutional Tribunal and State Tribunal are not part of Polish judiciary system.

When it comes to common courts in Poland, they are separated into appellate courts, district courts and regional courts, having competency in criminal, civil, economic, labor and family law.  

The Supreme Court in Poland

The Polish Supreme Court works in relation with General Courts, meaning district, regional and appeal courts, as well as military courts, that deal with problems related to crimes committed by soldiers in active service, prisoners of war and civilians working in military units. Located in Warsaw, it represents the last resort of appeal in lower courts and passes resolutions in order to clarify specific legal provisions. As for the judges part of the Supreme Court, the President of the Republic of Poland has the power of appointing them and selects the First President of the Court. The First President may hold the office for a period of six years.

The Supreme Court has the ability of examining if the judicial decisions of civil and military laws are in accordance with the law. 

Common Courts in Poland

The Common courts in Poland consist of two instances, the district court that includes Municipal court, and the regional court. The second instance courts are regional court and court of appeal. The Common Courts in Poland handle cases in areas life civil, family, minors, labor, social security, commercial, criminal, or bankruptcy.

Courts of second instance handles appealed cases and has the authority up upholding appealed decisions, meaning that the decision remains in force, as well as amending the appealed decisions, which means that a new decision will be implemented in the case. In addition, the courts of second instances can revoke the decision and remand the case to re-examination.

District Court and Regional Court in Poland

Starting from March 1, 2006, Poland has 315 district courts, located in larger cities, and they handle all cases, minor civil and criminal, including misconduct, except for those reserved for the regional court. In Poland there are 380 municipal divisions spread out the entire country.

In regards with Regional Court, there are 45 Regional Courts in Poland and they handle appeals but also serious cases such as high claim value or crimes. If you are in need of legal assistance for litigation cases in Poland, our attorneys can provide all the necessary information. 

We can also give you details about which courts handle disputes related to a will in Poland.

Court of Appeals and Administrative Courts in Poland

A Court of Appeals in Poland ties appeals from decision of the regional court. As there are 11 Polish courts of appeal, they are locaded in major Cities, such as Bialystok, Gdansk, Katowice, Kraków, Lublin, Lódz, Poznan, Rzeszów, Warszawa, Wroclaw and Szczecin.

There are two types of Administrative Courts instances in PolandVoivodship Administrative Courts (WSA) and the Supreme Administrative Court (NSA). They are entitled to revoke, annul or uphold the appealed administrative act, but they cannot issue new decisions.

The Voivodship Administrative Courts (WSA) in Poland is in charge with complaints in relation to administrative decisions, acts of action by administrative entities and acts of law of municipal units. 

Feel free to contact our law firm in Poland to receive more information regarding the legal system in Poland. We can offer all the needed legal assistance.